Research on scaffolding
Furthermore, the students in the experimental condition made greater gains both on group and individual measurements non-verbal reasoning measured with the Raven Progressive Matrices than students in the control condition.
Advantages of scaffolding in education
She examined the role of the teacher in literature discussions and found that gradual handover of responsibility was one of the features of scaffolding. Although scaffolding was in many studies equated with almost any support given by the teacher, the key characteristics of scaffolding are starting to get more emphasis in the scaffolding research. Guidance might not only be needed to help students with the task at hand, it might also help students to stay on-task. This refers both to fading and to transfer of responsibility. Qualitative descriptions of the characteristics of the scaffolding used in the study were frequently presented e. They focused on the contingency and transfer of responsibility in not only their theoretical framework but also their analyses. All students performed a series of hands-on experiments while tutored in a one-to-one setting. And in this light, the distinction between scaffolding intentions and means, which is made in the scaffolding framework in relation to student activities, may be useful for studying the process of scaffolding in the future.
Lidzp. To evaluate the effectiveness of scaffolding, the focus should obviously be upon student outcomes. The measurement of scaffolding Scaffolding is difficult to measure due to its dynamic nature and complexity Davis and Miyake ; Granott ; Renninger and Granott ; Renninger et al.
Scaffolding questions examples
The unit of analysis In reviewing the methods of measuring scaffolding, many different units of analysis were encountered. First, scaffolding was often not measured in scaffolding research using a clearly reliable and valid measurement instrument. Fading, for example, may be seen as an inherent part of contingency. In the present section, several difficulties with the measurement of scaffolding will be considered—difficulties that appear, in our opinion, to hamper research on scaffolding. The mental models used by 10th grade high school students at pretest and posttest were coded. Azevedo et al. Though most studies focused on subject-matter learning, some studies focused on other matters such as engagement Lutz et al. The scaffolding means consisted of, among other things, the provision of explanations, instruction, modeling, hints, and questions contingent upon the level of the individual children.
The unit of analysis can certainly differ depending on the characteristics of scaffolding being considered and thus for contingency versus fading versus transfer of responsibility. The variety of descriptive studies offers rich narratives of scaffolding in the classroom.
Though most studies focused on subject-matter learning, some studies focused on other matters such as engagement Lutz et al.
The first key characteristic, i. Nine levels of support were identified and the conditions differed with regard to the levels that could be used.
In sum, the measurement and analysis of scaffolding still appears to be in its infancy. Effectiveness with respect to metacognitive activities of students Mercer et al.
based on 55 review